Istrazivanja i projektovanja za privreduJournal of Applied Engineering Science


DOI: 10.5937/jaes0-31307 
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0
Creative Commons License

Volume 20 article 928 pages: 264-275

Thang Nguyen Van*
Department of Oil and Gas Field Development and Operation, Oil and Gas Faculty, Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 199106

Aleksandr Nikolaevich Aleksandrov
Department of Oil and Gas Field Development and Operation, Oil and Gas Faculty, Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 199106

Mikhail Konstantinovich Rogachev
Department of Oil and Gas Field Development and Operation, Oil and Gas Faculty, Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 199106

In recent years, an insurmountable problem in high-wax oil production has been the intensive formation of organic deposits in the bottom-hole zone of the formation, downhole and surface equipment, leading to a dramatic loss in wells production, transportation capability, and subsequently has a detrimental effect on efficiency. Gas-lift is a widely used method, where compressed high-pressure gas is injected through the tubing annulus. Consequently, the current fluid level in the annulus decreases and increases in the tubing string. The compressed gas enters the tubing through gas-lift valves, mixing with the liquid. During production, changes in pressure, temperature, and fluid composition along the well bore highly depend upon the compressed gas injected into the well. At temperatures below the wax appearance temperature, organic wax crystals will form either in bulk volumes of fluid or on cold surfaces of equipment, consequently, covering the surface. Wax formation is a hazardous and costly task in the oil and gas industry, especially when operating gas-lift wells. Hence, the prevention of wax formation in gas-lift wells is of utmost importance. Although, numerous methods have been implemented to handle the wax formation problem in recent decades, questions concerning their economic viability as well as their effectiveness remain relevant. In this paper, a complete algorithm for determining changes in the oil component composition in a gas-lift well during the injection of associated petroleum gas is detailed. The obtained results play a pivotal role in the study of wax deposition. A technological scheme has been developed to prevent wax deposit formation in the tubing strings during gas-lift well operation. A simulation using the introduced process and technology has been run, and an observed result obtained. After running the simulation, we determined the optimal composition of the associated petroleum injection gas based on the required flow rate of the working agent and the lowest value of the wax appearance temperature. This method offers potential solutions to increasing gas-lift well production efficiency under complex wax formation conditions.

View article

1. Sevic, S., & Branko G. (2017). Simulation of temperature-pressure profiles and wax deposition in gas-lift wells. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, Volume 23(4), pp. 537-545. DOI: 10.2298/CICEQ161014006S‏

2. Nguyen, V.T., Rogachev, M.K., & Aleksandrov, A.N. (2020). A new approach to improving efficiency of gas-lift wells in the conditions of the formation of organic wax deposits in the Dragon field. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, Volume 10(8), pp. 3663-3672. DOI: 10.1007/s13202-020-00976-4

3. Khaibullina, K.S., Korobov, G.Y., & Lekomtsev, A.V. (2020). Development of an asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits inhibitor and substantiation of the technological parameters of its injection into the bottom-hole formation zone. Periódico tchê química, Volume 17(34), pp. 769-781.

4. Drozdov, A.N., & Gorbyleva, Y.А. (2019). Improving the Operation of Pump-ejector Systems at Varying Flow Rates of Associated Petroleum Gas. Journal of Mining Institute, Volume 238, pp. 415-422. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2019.4.415

5. Aguiar, J.I.S., Pontifes, A.A., Nerris, A., Rogers, J., & Mahmoudkhani, A. (2020). Impact of Solvent Treatments for Asphaltenes on Wax Deposition and an Efficient Alternative with Green Surfactants. Offshore Technology Conference. DOI: 10.4043/30695-MS

6. Goodman, N.T., & Joshi, N. (2013). A Tale of Two Flowlines - Paraffin Plugging and Remediation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/166196-MS

7. Weingarten, J.S., & Euchner, J.A. (1988). Methods for predicting wax precipitation and deposition. SPE Production Engineering, pp. 121-126. DOI: 10.2118/15654-PA

8. Mydland, S., Whitson, C.H., Carlsen, M.L., Dahouk, M.M., & Yusra, I. (2020). Black-Oil and Compositional Reservoir Simulation of Gas-Based EOR in Tight Unconventional. In SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. Unconventional Resources Technology Conference. DOI: 10.15530/urtec-2020-2765

9. Zheng, S., Saidoun, M., Palermo, T., Mateen, K., & Fogler, H.S. (2017). Wax deposition modeling with considerations of non-Newtonian characteristics: Application on field-scale pipeline. Energy & Fuels, Volume 31(5), pp. 5011-5023. DOI: 10.4043/26914-MS

10. Thota, S.T., & Onyeanuna, C.C. (2016). Mitigation of wax in oil pipelines. Int J Eng Res Rev, Volume 4(4), pp. 39-47.

11. White, M., Pierce, K., & Acharya, T. (2018). A review of wax-formation/mitigation technologies in the petroleum industry. SPE Production & Operations, Volume 33(03), pp. 476-485. DOI: 10.2118/189447-PA

12. Islamov, S. R., Bondarenko, A. V., & Mardashov, D. V. (2019). A selection of emulsifiers for preparation of invert emulsion drilling fluids. In Topical Issues of Rational Use of Natural Resources, Volume 2, pp. 487-494.

13. Linh, N.K., Gabov, V.V., & Lykov, Y.V. (2018). Substantiation of parameters of coal unloading process onto conveyor using shearer drums. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 194. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/194/4/042019

14. Cherepovitsyn, А.Е., Lipina, S.А., & Evseeva, О.О. (2018). Innovative approach to the development of mineral raw materials of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Journal of Mining Institute, Volume 232, pp. 438-444. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2018.4.438

15. Rogachev, M.K., & Strizhnev, K.V. (2006). Fighting complications in oil production. Nedra, 296 p.

16. Decker, K., & Sutton, R.P. (2018). Gas Lift Annulus Pressure. In SPE Artificial Lift Conference and Exhibition-Americas. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/190929-MS

17. Golubev, I.A., Golubev, А.V., & Laptev, А.B. (2020). Practice of using the magnetic treatment devices to intensify the processes of primary oil treating. Journal of Mining Institute, Volume 245, pp. 554-560. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2020.5.7

18. Kopteva, A.V., Dementyev, A., & Koptev, V. (2021). Analysis of the Structure of Viscous Oil Flow for the Development of a System to Prevent the Formation of Paraffin Deposits in Pipelines. In Materials Science Forum, Volume 1022, pp. 42-51.

19. Aslanov, H., Novruzov, A., & Harun, A. (2019). Managing Wax-Deposition Risks in Oil Subsea Pipelines by Integrating Wax Modeling and Pigging Performance. SPE Production & Operations, Volume 34(03), pp. 625-634. DOI: 10.2118/194506-PA

20. Fleyfel, F., Meng, W., & Hernandez, O. (2004). Production of Waxy Low Temperature Wells with Hot Gas Lift. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/89853-MS

21. Shedid, S.A., & Yakoot, M.S. (2016). Simulation study of technical and feasible gas lift performance. International Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, Volume 10(1), pp. 21-44.

22. Zhao, Y., Limb, D., & Zhu, X. (2017). A study of wax deposition in pipeline using thermal hydraulic model. In 18th International Conference on Multiphase Production Technology. BHR Group.

23. Feder, J. (2019). Gas Lift Operations Require Accurate Predictions of Downhole Annulus Pressure. Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 71(03), pp. 65-67. DOI: 10.2118/0319-0065-JPT

24. Morenov, V., & Leusheva, E. (2017). Development of Drilling Mud Solution for Drilling in Hard Rocks. International Journal of Engineering, Volume 30(4), pp. 620-626. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2017.30.04a.22

25. Islamov, S.R.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Gabibov, A.F.; Mardashov, D.V. Polymer compositions for well killing operation in fractured reservoirs. Advances in Raw Material Industries for Sustainable Development Goals; Taylor & Francis: London, UK, 2021; pp. 343–351.

26. Hassan, A., Alade, O., Mahmoud, M., & Al-Majed, A. (2019). A Novel Technique for Removing Wax Deposition in the Production System Using Thermochemical Fluids. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/197323-MS

27. Santos, H.F.L., Perondi, E.A., Wentz, A.V., Silva Júnior, A.L., Barone, D.A.C., Galassi, M., & Ferreira, L.H.T. (2020). Annelida, a Robot for Removing Hydrate and Paraffin Plugs in Offshore Flexible Lines: Development and Experimental Trials. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/196015-PA

28. Ilyushin, Y.V., & Novozhilov, I.M. (2019). Automation of the Paraffin Oil Production Technological Process. In 2019 III International Conference on Control in Technical Systems (CTS), pp. 164-167. IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/CTS48763.2019.8973352

29. Raney, K., Alibek, K., Shumway, M., Karathur, K., Stanislav, T., West, G., & Jacobs, M. (2019). A Novel Biochemical-Based Paraffin Wax Removal Program Providing Revenue Generation and Asset Enhancement. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/193579-MS

30. Xiu, Z., Dufils, P.-E., Zhou, J., Cadix, A., Hatchman, K., Decoster, T., & Ferlin, P. (2019). Amphiphilic Wax Inhibitor for Tackling Crude Oil Wax Deposit Challenges. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/193593-MS

31. Miller, A., Smith, R., Dufresne, B., & Mahmoudkhani, A. (2019). Out with the Old: Developing a New Test Methodology for Paraffin Wax Dispersion and Inhibition Testing. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/193552-MS

32. Islamov, S.R., Bondarenko, A.V., Mardashov, D.V. Substantiation of a well killing technology for fractured carbonate reservoirs. Youth Technical Sessions Proceedings: VI Youth Forum of the World Petroleum Council – Future Leaders Forum; Taylor & Francis: London, UK, 2019; pp. 256–264.

33. Kar, T., & Firoozabadi, A. (2019). Mitigation of Paraffinic Wax Deposition and the Effect of Brine. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/196032-MS

34. Khormali, A., Moghadasi, R., Kazemzadeh, Y., & Struchkov, I. (2021). Development of a new chemical solvent package for increasing the asphaltene removal performance under static and dynamic conditions. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 109066. DOI: 10.1016/j.petrol.2021.109066

35. Coutinho, R., Williams, W., Waltrich, P., Mehdizadeh, P., & Scott, S. (2017). A model for liquid-assisted gas-lift unloading. In 18th International Conference on Multiphase Production Technology. BHR Group.

36. Rogachev, M.K., Nguyen Van, T., Aleksandrov, A.N. Technology for Preventing the Wax Deposit Formation in Gas-Lift Wells at Offshore Oil and Gas Fields in Vietnam. Energies 2021, 14, 5016. DOI:10.3390/e14165016

37. Khormali, A., Sharifov, A.R., & Torba, D.I. (2018). Experimental and modeling study of asphaltene adsorption onto the reservoir rocks. Petroleum Science and Technology, Volume 36 (18), pp. 1482–1489. DOI: 10.1080/10916466.2018.1496116.

38. Wilson, A. (2018). Novel Polymer Modifications Lead to Next-Generation Pour-Point Depressants. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/0918-0114-JPT

39. Nwankwo, K.O., Chikwekwem, C.J., & Nwankwo, P.C. (2018). Simultaneous Flow Assurance and Production Optimization Using Chemical Paraffin Inhibition Method. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/193515-MS

40. Sultanbekov, R., Islamov, S., Mardashov, D., Beloglazov, I.,Hemmingsen, T. Research of the Influence of Marine Residual Fuel Composition on Sedimentation Due to Incompatibility. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 1067. DOI: 10.3390/jmse9101067

41. Khaibullina, K.S., Sagirova, L.R., & Sandyga, M.S. (2020). Substantiation and selection of an inhibitor for preventing the formation of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits. Periodico Tche Quimica, Volume 17(34), pp. 541-551.

42. Li, W., Huang, Q., Wang, W., Ren, Y., Dong, X., Zhao, Q., & Hou, L. (2019). Study on Wax Removal During Pipeline-Pigging Operations. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/194010-PA

43.Sultanbekov, R., Beloglazov, I., Islamov, S., Ong, M.C. Exploring of the Incompatibility of Marine Residual Fuel: A Case Study Using Machine Learning Methods. Energies 2021, 14, 8422. DOI: 10.3390/en14248422

44. Olajire, A.A. (2021). Review of wax deposition in subsea oil pipeline systems and mitigation technologies in the petroleum industry. Chemical Engineering Journal Advances. Vol. 6, pp. 100-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.ceja.2021.100104

45. Behbahani, T.J., Beigi, A.A.M., Taheri, Z., & Ghanbari, B. (2015). Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling. Petroleum, Volume 1(3), pp. 223-230. DOI: 10.1016/j.petlm.2015.07.007

46. Brown, T.S., Niesen, V.G., & Erickson, D.D. (1994). The effects of light ends and high pressure on paraffin formation. In SPE annual technical conference and exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.

47. Du, F., Nojabaei, B., & Johns, R.T. (2018). A black-oil approach to model produced gas injection for enhanced recovery of conventional and unconventional reservoirs. In SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/191454-MS

48. Pedersen, K.S., Fredenslund, A., & Thomassen, P. (1989). Properties of oils and natural gases. Gulf Pub Co, Volume 5, 385 p.

49. Hosseinipour, A., Sabil, K.M., Arya Ekaputra, A., Japper, A.B., & Ismail, L.B. (2014). The impact of the composition of the crude oils on the wax crystallization. In Applied Mechanics and Materials, Volume 625, pp. 196-200. DOI: 10.4028/

50. Aleksandrov, A.N., Rogachev, M.K., Van, T.N., Kishchenko, M.А., & Kibirev, E.A. (2019). Simulation of organic solids formation process in high-wax formation oil. Topical Issues of Rational Use of Natural Resources, Volume 2, pp. 779-790.

51.Taheri-Shakib, J., Rajabi-Kochi, M., Kazemzadeh, E., Naderi, H., & Shekarifard, A. (2018). A comprehensive study of the impact of wax compositions on the wax appearance temperature (WAT) of some Iranian crude oils: an experimental investigation. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Volume 165, pp. 67-80.

52. Xie, Y., Meng, J., & Chen, D. (2021). Wax deposition law and OLGA-Based prediction method for multiphase flow in submarine pipelines, Petroleum. DOI: 10.1016/j.petlm.2021.03.004.