This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0
Volume 20 article 983 pages: 765-777
This paper presents a numerical analysis of the exterior Beam-Column Joints (BCJ) in resisting a combination of constant axial and lateral cyclic loads. The materials used in this study were Normal Concrete (NC) and Light Weight Concrete (LWC). Light Weight Concrete has been commonly used to reduce the mass of buildings and minimize the structural damages due to earthquakes. A numerical model of exterior BCJ using NC materials was verified using experimental data from the previous research. Then, these models of exterior BCJ using NC and LWC materials were analyzed to obtain the performance. This study aimed to elaborate on the LWC as materials of structures to resist earthquake loads. The performance of the exterior BCJ models was analyzed through hysteretic curves, ductility, stiffness degradation, and strength degradation. The analysis results showed that the NC-BCJ model achieved a higher maximum story drift of 5.3% than the LWC-BCJ model of 4.5%. NC-BCJ model reached higher maximum lateral forces of 40.58 kN and 40.51 kN under push and pull loads, compared with the LWC-BCJ model of 27.83 kN and 32.40 kN. The exterior NC-BCJ model satisfied the strength criteria in the ACI 374.1-19 with a ratio of 1.0 under push and pull loads. Despite the lower maximum lateral forces achieved by the LWC-BCJ model than NC-BCJ, it satisfied this criterion with ratios of 0.93 and 0.99 under push and pull loads, respectively. Both NC-BCJ and LWC-BCJ models performed moderate ductility of 2.70 and 2.52.
The authors would like to thank the support and facilities from Universitas Sriwijaya.
1. Sojobi, A. O., Aladegboye, O. J., and Awolusi, T. F. (2018). Green interlocking paving units. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 173, pp. 600-614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.04.061.
2. Saloma, Hanafiah, and Urmila, D. (2017). The effect of water binder ratio and fly ash on the properties of foamed concrete, AIP conference proceedings, vol. 1903, no. 1, pp. 1-7, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5011550.
3. Dehkordi, S. A., Mostofinejad, D., and Alaee, P. (2019). Effects of high-strength reinforcing bars and concrete on seismic behavior of RC beam-column joints, Engineering Structures, vol. 183, pp. 702–719, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.01.019.
4. Dabiri, H. and Kheyroddin, A. (2021). An experimental comparison of RC beam-column joints incorporating different splice methods in the beam, Structures, vol. 34, pp. 1603–1613, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2021.08.101.
5. Borujerdi, A. S., Mostofinejad, D., Hwang, H. J., and Salimian, M. S. (2021). Evaluation of structural performance for beam-column joints with high-strength materials under cyclic loading using PIV technique, Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 44, no. 103283, pp. 1-14,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103283.
6. Beydokhty, E. Z. and Shariatmadar, H. (2016). Behavior of Damaged Exterior RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by CFRP Composites, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 880-896,http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1679-78252258.
7. Zhang, J., Pei, Z., Rong, X., Zhang, X. (2021). Experimental study of HSS-reinforced exterior beam–column joints with different enhancement details. Engineering Structures, 246, 113038, pp. 1-19,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2021.113038.
8. ACI Committee 374. (2019). (reapproved). ACI 374.1-05 Acceptance Criteria for Moment Frames Based on Structural Testing and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills.
9. Abdelwahed, B. A. (2020). Review on Reinforced Concrete Beam Column Joint: Role, Modeling and Recent Details. Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 63-79,https://doi.org/10.36909/jer.v8i4.8043.
10. Singh, N. T. (2016). Effective uses of Light Weight Concrete. Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 208-211.
11. Li, Z. (2011). Advanced Concrete Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
12. Ramadhanty, C. V. (2019). Durability of Lightweight Geopolymer Concrete Against 5% HCl Solution with 14 M NaOH Concentration, Thesis of Undergraduate Program, Civil Engineering Department, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang. (Text in Indonesian)
13. Kurniawan, F. (2017). Simulation and Analysis of Impact Stress on RIM Truck Wheel with Finite Element Method. Thesis of Undergraduate Program. InstitutTeknologiSepuluhNopember. Surabaya. (in Indonesian)
14. ANSYS v20 R1. (2020). Program manual.
15. Budiono, B., Nurjannah, S. A., and Imran, I. (2019). Nonlinear Numerical Modeling of Partially Pre-stressed Beam-column Sub-assemblages Made of Reactive Powder Concrete. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, vol. 51, no.1, pp. 28-47,https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2019.51.1.3.
16. Nurjannah, S. A., Hysteretic Behavior of Partially Pre-stressed Reactive Powder Concrete Beam-column Sub-assemblages, Dissertation, Postgraduate of Civil Engineering Program, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 371, 2016. (Text in Indonesian)
17. Kurniawan, R. The Behavior of Reactive Powder Concrete Plate-Column Connection under Gravity and Cyclic Lateral Loads, Doctoral Dissertation, Postgraduate of Civil Engineering Program, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Indonesia, 2015. (Text in Indonesian)
18. Badshah, M., Badshah, S., and Jan, S. (2020). Comparison of computational fluid dynamics and fluid structure interaction models for the performance prediction of tidal current turbines. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 164-172,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joes.2019.10.001.
19. Nurjannah, S. A., Budiono, B., and Imran, I. (2020). Influence of Partial Prestressing Ratio On Hysteretic Behavior of Beam Column Subassemblage Using Reactive Powder Concrete Materials, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1933-1941.
20. ACI Committee 318. (2019). ACI 318R-19. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills.
21. Rajeshguna, R., Mariappan, M., Raju, A., and Suguna, K. Cyclic response of high strength fibre reinforced concrete beams with fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates. (2021). Journal of Materials Research, vol. 15, pp. 1524-1536,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.08.141.
22. Abdul-Razzaq, K.S., Jebur, S.F., and Mohammed, A.H. (2018). Concrete and Steel Strengths Effect on Deep Beams with Reinforced Struts, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 66-73.
23. Shaabana, I.G. and Said, M. (2018). Finite element modeling of exterior beam-column joints strengthened by ferrocement under cyclic loading, Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 8, pp. 333–346,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2018.02.010.
24. Najafgholipour. M.A., Dehghan, S.M., Dooshabi, A., Niroomandi, A. (2017). Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections with Governing Joint Shear Failure Mode, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 14, pp. 1200-1225,http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1679-78253682.
25. Abusafaqa, F. R., Samaaneh, M. A., and Dwaikat, M. B. M. (2022). Structures, vol. 36, pp. 979–996.
26. Park, R. and Paulay, T. (1975). Reinforced concrete structures, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
27. Cohn, M. Z. and Bartlett, M. (1982). Computer-simulated flexural tests of partially pre-stressed concrete sections, ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 108, no. 12, pp. 2747–2765,https://doi.org/10.1061/JSDEAG.0006103.
28. Azizinamini, A., Pavel, R., Hatfield, E., and Gosh, S. K. (1999). Behavior of lap spliced reinforcing bars embedded in high strength concrete, ACI Structural Journal, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 826–836,https://doi.org/10.14359/737.
29. American Society of Civil Engineers. (2000). FEMA-356 Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, prepared for the SAC Joint Venture, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Virginia, Washington, D.C, pp. 3-19 to 3-20.
30. Kim, I.H., Kim, J.K. (2004). Seismic Design Strategies and Details Appropriate to Moderate Seismicity Regions, 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August 1-6, paper no. 1420.
31. Dietrich, M. Z., Calenzani, A. F. G., Fakury, H. L. (2019). Analysis of rotational stiffness of steel-concrete composite beams for lateral torsional buckling, Engineering Structures, Vol. 198, No. 109554, pp. 1-15.