This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0
Volume 20 article 1000 pages: 946-956
It is believed that implementation of green, lean and six sigma (GLSS) practices in SMEs is important to achieve sustainable growth likewise large scale industries. Pakistan is a developing country and its economic development is heavily dependent over the existence and growth of SMEs. The aim of this study is to identify and rank the major critical success factors (CSFs) that will affect GLSS practices implementation in Pakistani SMEs. List of sixteen CSFs is developed based on the available literature and with the consultation of experts. Structured interviews are conducted from the academic and field experts to collect the data. Later on, data is statistically analyzed to rank the CSFs of GLSS implementation in SMEs. Top seven CSFs that achieved above 70% agreement by the experts are Management participation and support, Training and education, Leadership for GLSS, Legislation, Understanding GLSS methodologies, Organizational infrastructure and Technology up gradation in Pakistani SMEs. This study significantly lessens the implementation troubles and will assist in conducting empirical studies in SMEs by considering CSFs in Pakistani context.
1. Khurrum S. Bhutta, M., A.I. Rana, and U. Asad (2008), Owner characteristics and health of SMEs in Pakistan. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 15(1): pp. 130-149.
2. Acs, Z.J. and D.B. Audretsch (1990), The determinants of small-firm growth in US manufacturing. Applied Economics. 22(2): pp. 143-153.
3. Kotey, B. and G. Meredith (1997), Relationships among owner/manager personal values, business strategies, and enterprise performance. Journal of small business management. 35(2): p. 37.
4. Hamid, K. and M. Abaidullah (2017), Financing the small and medium scale enterprises in Faisalabad (Pakistan), journal of Agriculture & social sciences 1813–2235/2006/02–2–106–109.
5. Kotelnikov, V. (2007), Small and medium enterprises and ICT, United Nations Development Program-Asia Pacific Development Information Program. Asian and Pacific Training Center for Information and Communication Technology for Development, ISBN: 978-974-8283-93-7.
6. Cherrafi, A., et al. (2016), The integration of lean manufacturing, Six Sigma and sustainability: A literature review and future research directions for developing a specific model. Journal of Cleaner Production. 139: pp. 828-846.
7. Yadav, V. and P. Gahlot (2022), Green Lean Six Sigma sustainability-oriented framework for small and medium enterprises. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management.
8. Ohno, T. ( 1988), Toyota production system: beyond large-scale production: crc Press.
9. Rauch, E., P. Dallasega, and D. Matt (2017), Critical factors for introducing lean product development to small and medium sized enterprises in Italy, Elsevier BV.
10. AlManei, M., K. Salonitis, and Y. Xu (2017), Lean implementation frameworks: the challenges for SMEs. Procedia CIRP. 63: pp. 750-755.
11. Antosz, K. and D. Stadnicka (2017), Lean philosophy implementation in SMEs–study results. Procedia Engineering. 182: pp. 25-32.
12. Dombrowski, U. and A. Karl (2017), Lean Product Development for Small and Medium-sized Suppliers. Procedia CIRP. 63: pp. 615-620.
13. Verma, N. and V. Sharma (2017), Sustainable competitive advantage by implementing lean manufacturing “A Case study for Indian SME”. Materials Today: Proceedings. 4(8): pp. 9210-9217.
14. Belhadi, A., F.E. Touriki, and S. Elfezazi (2018), Evaluation of critical success factors (CSFs) to lean implementation in SMEs using AHP: A case study. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma.
15. Pearce, A., D. Pons, and T. Neitzert (2018), Implementing lean—Outcomes from SME case studies. Operations Research Perspectives. 5: pp. 94-104.
16. Alkhoraif, A. (2018), Lean Implementation in small and medium enterprises: Literature review. Operations Research Perspectives: pp. 100089.
17. Gandhi, N.S., S.J. Thanki, and J.J. Thakkar (2018), Ranking of drivers for integrated lean-green manufacturing for Indian manufacturing SMEs. Journal of Cleaner Production. 171: pp. 675-689.
18. Paul, I., G. Bhole, and J. Chaudhari (2014), A review on green manufacturing: it's important, methodology and its application. Procedia Materials Science. 6: pp. 1644-1649.
19. Lai, K.-H., et al. (2011), Green shipping practices in the shipping industry: Conceptualization, adoption, and implications. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 55(6): pp. 631-638.
20. Tan, X., et al. (2002), A decision-making framework model of cutting fluid selection for green manufacturing and a case study. Journal of Materials processing technology. 129(1-3): pp. 467-470.
21. Diaz-Elsayed, N., et al. (2013), Assessment of lean and green strategies by simulation of manufacturing systems in discrete production environments. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology. 62(1): pp. 475-478.
22. Cloquell-Ballester, V.-A., et al. (2008), Environmental education for small-and medium-sized enterprises: Methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region. Journal of Environmental Management. 87(3): pp. 507-520.
23. Ramayah, T., et al. (2012), Green Manufacturing Practices and Performance among SMEs: Evidence from. Green Technologies and Business Practices: An IT Approach: An IT Approach: p. 208.
24. Ghazilla, R.A.R., et al. (2015), Drivers and barriers analysis for green manufacturing practices in Malaysian SMEs: a preliminary findings. Procedia CIRP. 26: pp. 658-663.
25. Binti Zakaria, N.S. and S. bin Haji Hasan, (2016) Green Manufacturing Practices (GMP) Framework For Local Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) In Johor, Malaysia: A Review On Enablers And Barriers and Preliminary Findings on Critical Factors, International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), DOI:10.21817/ijet/2016/v8i6/160806212.
26. Wadhwa, R.S. (2014), Synergizing lean and green for continuous improvement. in IFIP International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems. Springer.
27. Sinha, P.K. and N.N. Singh, (2013) The Advancement & Effect of Six Sigma Approach in a Modern Industry and Current Business Enterprise. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET). 4(3): pp. 32-46.
28. Youssouf, A., C. Rachid, and V. Ion, (2014) Contribution to the optimization of strategy of maintenance by lean six sigma. Physics Procedia. 55: pp. 512-518.
29. Simanová, Ľ. (2015) Specific Proposal of the Application and Implementation Six Sigma in Selected Processes of the Furniture Manufacturing. Procedia Economics and Finance. 34: pp. 268-275.
30. Banuelas, R., J. Antony, and M. Brace, (2005), An application of Six Sigma to reduce waste. Quality and Reliability Engineering International. 21(6): pp. 553-570.
31. Antony, J., et al. (2012), Application of Six Sigma DMAIC methodology in a transactional environment. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management. 29(1): pp. 31-53.
32. Treichler,D. et al. (2002), Design for Six Sigma:15 lessons learned. Quality Progress. 35(1):p. 33.
33. Mahanti, R. and J. Antony, (2009) Six Sigma in the Indian software industry: some observations and results from a pilot survey. The TQM Journal. 21(6): pp. 549-564.
34. Poznańska, K. (2004) Factors of Innovations Increase of Small and Mediums Firms in Poland. in International Conference on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Strengths–Weaknesses–Opportunities–Threats, vol. 30, no. 31, p. 08. 2004.
35. Ben Romdhane, T., A. Badreddine, and M. Sansa, (2017) A new model to implement Six Sigma in small-and medium-sized enterprises. International Journal of Production Research. 55(15): pp. 4319-4340.
36. Amar, K. and D. Davis. (2008) A review of six sigma implementation frameworks and related literature. in IAENG: International Conference on Industrial Engineering. Citeseer.
37. Tyagi, D., V. Soni, and V. Khare, (2014) A Review on Issues for Implementation of Six Sigma by Small and Medium Enterprises. International Journal of the Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology. 3(4): pp. 94-98.
38. Khan, M.W.J. and M. Khalique, (2014), An overview of small and medium enterprises in Malaysia and Pakistan: past, present and future scenario. Business and Management Horizons. 2(2): p. 38.
39. Nabhani, F. and A. Shokri, (2009), Reducing the delivery lead time in a food distribution SME through the implementation of six sigma methodology. Journal of manufacturing technology Management. 20(7): pp. 957-974.
40. Cagnazzo, L. and P. Taticchi, (2010), Six Sigma for big companies and SMEs: evidences from literature. WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on Business and Economics, (4): pp. 295-310.
41. Vendrame Takao, M.R., J. Woldt, and I.B. da Silva, (2017), Six Sigma methodology advantages for small-and medium-sized enterprises: A case study in the plumbing industry in the United States. Advances in Mechanical Engineering. 9(10): pp. 168-173.
42. Taner, M. (2012), A feasibility study for Six Sigma implementation in Turkish textile SMEs. South East European Journal of Economics and Business. 7(1): pp. 63-71.
43. Cherrafi, A., et al. (2017), A framework for the integration of Green and Lean Six Sigma for superior sustainability performance. International Journal of Production Research. 55(15): pp. 4481-4515.
44. Kaswan, M.S. and R. Rathi, (2020), Green Lean Six Sigma for sustainable development: Integration and framework. Environmental impact assessment review. 83: p. 106396.
45. Farrukh, A., S. Mathrani, and N. Taskin, (2020), Investigating the Theoretical Constructs of a Green Lean Six Sigma Approach towards Environmental Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review and Future Directions. Sustainability. 12(19): p. 8247.
46. Kumar, M., J. Antony, and M.K. Tiwari, (2011), Six Sigma implementation framework for SMEs–a roadmap to manage and sustain the change. International Journal of Production Research. 49(18): pp. 5449-5467.
47. Farrukh, A., S. Mathrani, and N. Taskin. (2019), Success Factors of a Combined Green, Lean, and Six Sigma Strategy for Environmental Performance. in 2019 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Computer Science and Data Engineering (CSDE). IEEE.
48. Duarte, S. and V. Cruz-Machado, (2013), Modelling lean and green: a review from business models. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma. 4(3): pp. 228-250.
49. Dües, C.M., K.H. Tan, and M. Lim, (2013), Green as the new Lean: how to use Lean practices as a catalyst to greening your supply chain. Journal of cleaner production. 40: pp. 93-100.
50. Wong, W.P. and K.Y. Wong, (2014), Synergizing an ecosphere of lean for sustainable operations. Journal of Cleaner Production. 85: pp. 51-66.
51. Timans, W., et al. (2012), Implementation of Lean Six Sigma in small-and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in the Netherlands. Journal of the Operational Research Society. 63(3): pp. 339-353.
52. Alhuraish, I., C. Robledo, and A. Kobi. (2014), Key Success Factors of Implementing Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma. in Liverpool (2014): 17th Toulon-Verona Conference" Excellence in Services".
53. Lande, M., R. Shrivastava, and D. Seth, (2016), Critical success factors for Lean Six Sigma in SMEs (small and medium enterprises). The TQM Journal. 28(4): pp. 613-635.
54. Antony, J. and M. Kumar, (2012), Lean and Six Sigma methodologies in NHS Scotland: an empirical study and directions for future research. Quality Innovation Prosperity. 16(2): pp. 19-34.
55. Tipuric, D. and L. Galetic, (1998), Strategic issues of small firms in a transition economy–An empirical study.
56. Roland Stankalla, O.K.F.C. (2018), A review of critical success factors for the successful implementation of lean six sigma and six sigma in manufacturing small and mediumsized enterprises. Quality Engineering.
57. Achanga, P., et al. (2006), Critical success factors for lean implementation within SMEs. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. 17(4): pp. 460-471.
58. Dworkin, S.L. (2012), Sample size policy for qualitative studies using in-depth interviews, Springer.
59. Mason, M. (2010), Sample size and saturation in PhD studies using qualitative interviews. in Forum qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: qualitative social research.
60. Mishra, M.N. (2018), Identify critical success factors to implement integrated green and Lean Six Sigma. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma.
61. Mittal, V.K. and K.S. Sangwan, (2015), Ranking of drivers for green manufacturing implementation using fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution method. Journal of Multi‐Criteria Decision Analysis. 22(1-2): pp. 119-130.