# Istrazivanja i projektovanja za privreduJournal of Applied Engineering Science

IMPROVing IMPREGNATION TECHNIQUES FOR FINE CONIFEROUS AND NON-CONIFEROUS WOOD

DOI: 10.5937/jaes0-27654
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0

Olga Kunickaya*
Yakut State Agricultural Academy, Department of Technology and equipment of forest complex, Yakutsk,Russian Federation

Elena Runova
Bratsk State University, Department of reproduction and processing of forest resources, Bratsk,Russian Federation

Svetlana Chzhan
Bratsk State University, Department of reproduction and processing of forest resources, Bratsk,Russian Federation

Artem Zhuk
Bratsk State University, Department of reproduction and processing of forest resources, Bratsk,Russian Federation

Oleg Markov
Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Petrozavodsk State University”, Russian Federation

Ivan Garus
Bratsk State University, Department of reproduction and processing of forest resources, Bratsk,Russian Federation

Valentina Nikiforova
Bratsk State University, Department of Ecology, life safety and chemistry, Bratsk, Russian Federation

Viktor Ivanov
Bratsk State University, Department of reproduction and processing of forest resources, Bratsk,Russian Federation

Wood modification with the improvement of its physical and mechanical properties is a promising way to increase the commercial quality of the material and enhance its sustainable use. This article presents the results on developing a model for impregnation with water of fine coniferous and non-coniferous wood by centrifugal processing techniques. The mathematical modeling is based on Darcy’s law. According to the model representation, the impregnation rate of the wood specimenis proportional to the pressure ratio of the impregnation liquid. The proportionality factor is a constant value that depends on the. Performed comparative analysis revealed the perfect consistency of calculations made using the formula of a centrifugal model with the experimental data. According to the analysis of impregnation rate time dependencies, the main saturation of the treated sample with liquid (70%) occurs in 1/3 of the complete cycle time. Besides, the established model allows determining with high accuracy the impregnation time as a function of atmospheric pressure, rotational speed, and the ratio of wood sample length to centrifuge platform radius for different wood species. Further studies are planned on evaluating the effect of different liquids viscosity on the kinetics of wood impregnation as well as determining the applicability of the proposed model.

View article

The work was carried out within the confines of the scientific school “Advances in lumber industry and forestry”.

1. Goh, C.S., Junginger, M., Cocchi, M., Marchal, D., Thran, D., Hennig, C., Hess, R. (2013). Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 7, no.1, 24-42, DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1366

2. Kozlov, V.G., Skrypnikov, A. V., Sushkov, S. I., Kruchinin, I. N., Grigorev, I. V., Nikiforov, A. A., Timokhova, O. M. (2019). Enhancing quality of road pavements through adhesion improvement. Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, vol. 25, no. 3, 678-694.

3. Makar, S.V., Yarasheva, A. V. (2017). Development of regional forest potential of Russia in the context of bio-economic trend. F. Gaol, N. Filimnova, F. Hutagalung, (Eds.), The Knowledge Economic Era. CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York, Leiden, p. 13-18.

4. Rudov, S., Shapiro, V., Grigorev, I., Kunitskaya, O., Druzyanova, V., Kokieva,G., Radnaed, D. (2019). Specific features of influence of propulsion plants of the wheel-tyre tractors upon the cryomorphic soils, soils, and soil grounds. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, 2052- 2071.

5. Grigorev, I., Frolov, I., Kunickaya, O. G., Burmistrova, O., Manukovskii, A., Hertz, E., Mikhaylenko, E. (2019). Non-destructive testing of internal structure of the low-quality wood. International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, 2104-2123.

6. Tambi, A.A., Ignatenko, S. V., Shinkarenko, S. Yu., Kul’kov, A. M., Grigor’ev, I. V., Yurkova, O. V., Sazhin, V. E. (2019). A Study of Wood Glued Joints Formed by Urea Melamine Formaldehyde Binders. Polymer Science, Series D, vol. 12, no.1, 51-57, DOI: 10.1134/S1995421219010209

7. Gong, M., Delahunty, S., Chui, Y. H., Li, L. (2013). Use of low grade hardwoods for fabricating laminated railway ties. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 41, 73-78, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.114

8. Yumashev, A.V., Gorobets, T.N., Admakin, O.I., Kuzminov, G.G., Nefedova, I.V. (2016).Key aspects of adaptation syndrome development and anti-stress effect of mesodiencephalic modulation. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 19, 93911, DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i19/93911

9. Gasparyan, G., Kunickaya, O. G., Grigorev, I., Ivanov, V., Burmistrova, O., Manukovskii, A., Mueller, O. (2018). Woodworking facilities: Driving efficiency through Automation applied to major process steps. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, vol. 7, no. 4.7, 368-375, DOI: 10.14419/ijet. v7i4.7.23032

10. Kwasniakova, K., Kokta, B. V., Koranm Z. (1996). Strength properties of black spruce wood under different treatment. Wood Science and Technology, vol. 30, no. 6, 463-475, DOI: 10.1007/BF00244441

11. Tsioptsias, C., Panayiotou, C. (2011). Thermal stability and hydrophobicity enhancement of wood through impregnation with aqueous solutions and supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Materials Science, vol. 46, no. 16, 5406-5411, DOI: 10.1007/ s10853-011-5480-1

12. Tondi, G., Thévenon, M. F., Mies, B., Standfest, G., Petutschnigg, A., Wieland, S. (2013). Impregnation of Scots pine and beech with tannin solutions: effect of viscosity and wood anatomy in wood infiltration. Wood Science Technology, vol. 47, no. 3, 615-626, DOI: 10.1007/s00226-012-0524-5

13. Gabrielli, C.P., Kamke. F. A. (2010). Phenol–formaldehyde impregnation of densified wood for improved dimensional stability. Wood Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, 5-104, DOI: 10.1088/1757- 899X/666/1/012066

14. Zimina, D. A., Nutskova, M. V. (2019). Research of technological properties of cement slurries based on cements with expanding additives, portland and magnesia cement. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 666, no. 1, 012066.

15. Ahmed, S. A., Moren, T, Sehlstedt-Persson, M., Blom, A. (2017). Effect of oil impregnation on water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility of thermally modified European aspen and downy birch wood. Journal of Wood Science, vol. 63, no. 1, 74-82, DOI: 10.1007/s10086-016-1595-y

16. Seki, M., Miki, T., Tanaka, S., Shigematsu, I., Kanayama, K. (2017). Repetitive fl ow forming of wood impregnated with thermoplastic binder. International Journal of Material Forming, vol. 10, no. 3, 435-441, DOI: 10.1007/s12289-016-1291-x

17. Fernandes, J., Kjellow, A. W., Henriksen, O. (2012). Modeling and optimization of the supercritical wood impregnation process—Focus on pressure and temperature. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 66, 307-314, DOI: 10.1016/j.supflu.2012.03.003

18. Pabelina, K.G., Lumban, C. O., Ramos, H. J. (2012). Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Re-search Section B, vol. 272, 365-369, DOI: 10.1016/j. nimb.2011.01.102

19. Wang, Y., Lindstrom, M. E., Henriksson, G. (2011). Mild alkaline treatment activates spruce wood for enzymatic processing: a possible stage in bio-refinery processes. Bio Resources, vol. 6, no. 3, 2425-2434.

20. Vladislavovich, G. I., Grigorev, G. V., Nikiforova, A. I., Kunitckaia, O. A., Dmitrieva, I. N., Pasztory, Z. (2014). Experimental study of impregnation birch and aspen samples. BioResources, vol. 9, 7018- 7026.

21. Dullien, F. A. (2012). Porous media: fluid transport and pore structure, 2nd ed. Academic press, San Diego.

22. Gething, B. A., Janowiak, J. J., Morrell, J. J. (2013). Using computational modeling to enhance the understanding of the fl ow of supercritical carbon dioxide in wood materials. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 82, 27-33, DOI: 10.1016/j.supflu.2013.05.019

23. Kjellow, A.W., and Henriksen, O. (2009). Supercritical wood impregnation. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 50, no. 3, 297-304, DOI: 10.1016/j.supflu. 2009.06.013

24. Gething, B. A. (2011). The computational modeling of supercritical carbon dioxide fl ow in solid wood materials. Doctoral dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University.

25. Pearson, H., Dawson, B., Kimberley, M., Davy, B. (2019). Predictive modelling of supercritical CO2 dewatering of capillary tubes. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 143, 198-204, DOI: 10.1016/j.supflu. 2018.08.016

26. Jalaludin, Z., Hill, C. A., Samsi, H. W., Husain, H., Xie, Y. (2010). Analysis of water vapour sorption of oleo-thermal modifi ed wood of Acacia mangium and Endospermummalaccense by a parallel exponential kinetics model and according to the Hailwood-Horrobin model. Holzforschung, vol. 64, no. 6, 763-770, DOI: 10.1515/hf.2010.100

27. Inalbon, M.C., Mussati, M. C., Mocchiutti, P., Zanuttini, M. A. (2011). Modeling of alkali impregnation of eucalyptus wood. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 50, no. 5, 2898-2904, DOI: 10.1021/ ie1019408

28. Croitoru, C., Patachia,S., Lunguleasa, A. (2015). A mild method of wood impregnation with biopolymers and resins using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as carrier. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 93, 257-268, DOI: 10.1016/j. cherd.2014.04.031

29. Barbetta, A., Fratzl, P., Zemb, T., Bertinetti, L. (2017). Impregnation and swelling of wood with salts: ion specific kinetics and thermodynamics effects. Advanced Materials Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 1, 1600437, DOI: 10.1002/admi.201600437

30. Rybakov, Y.P.,Semenova, N. V. (2018). Generalized Darcy’s law in filtration theory. EPJ Web of Conferences, vol. 173, 02017, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/ 201817302017