iipp publishingJournal of Applied Engineering Science


DOI: 10.5937/jaes17-22740
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 terms and conditions. 
Creative Commons License

Volume 17 article 613 pages: 333 - 337

Miro Petkovic*
University of Split, Faculty of Maritime studies, Croatia
Vice Mihanovic
Split Port Authority, Croatia
Igor Vujovic
University of Split, Faculty of Maritime studies, Croatia

Autonomous ships are in experimental stage nowadays with Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) already defined by IMO. Since MASS rely heavily on communications, security of communication systems and data security is critical. Secure communication is required to avoid bad actors to interfere with the communications or seizing control of a autonomous ship. In this paper, implementation of blockchain technology to improve autonomous vessels control security is investigated. This technology is already used in maritime bill of lading, acts on ship’s technical inspection and for more accurate container tracking etc. The paper is organized as follows: first section describes current status on autonomous ships, basic definitions and terms, second section describes what is blockchain technology and how does it work, third section deals with blockchain technology applications with the proposed usage of the technology in autonomous vessels control scheme.

View article
  1. Rolls-Royce. Finferries and Rolls-Royce test fully autonomous ferry in Finland, from: https://www.ship-technology.com/news/finferries-rolls-royce-ferry/, accessed on 2019-07-07
  2. Höyhtyä, M., Huusko, J., Kiviranta, M. (2017). Connectivity for Autonomous Ships: Architecture, Use Cases, and Research Challenges, 2017 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC), 18-20 Oct. 2017, Jeju, South Korea, p. 345 - 350
  3. Mraković, I., Vojinović, R. (2019), Maritime Cyber Security Analysis – How to Reduce Threats? Transactions on Maritime Science 8(1), p. 132-139.
  4. Rødseth, Ø. J., Nordahl, H. (2017), Definition for Autonomous Merchant Ships, Norwegian Forum for Autonomus Ships, from  http://nfas.autonomous-ship.org/resources/autonom-defs.pdf, accessed on  2019-08-07
  5. Managed, I. S., Thomas, B. Y.  The human element, UK P & I CLUB, no. 1–8.
  6. Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence in Networks, from http://www.unmanned-ship.org/munin/, accessed on 2019-09-07
  7. Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, Archive, from https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf, accessed on 2019-06-07
  8. Liu, L., Xu, B. (2018). Research on Information Security Technology Based on Blockchain, IEEE 3rd International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analysis, 20-22 April 2018, Chengdu, China, 380-384.
  9. Swan, M. (2015), Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy, O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol, Calif.
  10. Wingrove, M. Ten technologies to shake up maritime in 2018, from https://www.marinemec.com/news/view,ten-technologies-to-shake-up-maritime-in-2018_50317.htm, accessed on 2019-08-07
  11. Consortium to build global shipping blockchain, Digital Ship, Dec 2018 / Jan 2019, pp. 13
  12. Li, C. Maersk – Reinventing the Shipping Industry Using IoT and Blockchain, from https://digital.hbs.edu/industry-4-0/maersk-reinventing-shipping-industry-using-iot-blockchain/, accessed on 2019-09-07
  13. MI News Network. First Ever Blockchain-Based CargoX Smart B/I Successfully Completed its Historic Mission, from https://www.marineinsight.com/shipping-news/first-ever-blockchain-based-cargox-smart-b-l-successfully-completed-its-historic-mission/, accessed on 2019-19-08
  14. DNV GL. Deloitte and DNV GL deliver the first blockchain solution in the certification industry, from www2.deloitte.com/ie/en/pages/about-deloitte/articles/Deloitte_DNV_GL_first_ blockchain_solution_certification_industry.html, accessed on 2019-10-07
  15. Gallagher, J. COSCO fleet could still be at risk following attack, warns cyber expert, from https://safetyatsea.net/news/2018/cosco-fleet-could-still-be-at-risk-following-attack-warns-cyber-expert/, accessed on 2019-19-08
  16. Korjus, K. Estonian President Kersti Kaljulaid reveals the future direction of e-Residency, from https://medium.com/e-residency-blog/estonian-president-kersti-kaljulaid-reveals-the-future-direction-of-e-residency-5b1177dfa78c, accessed on 2019-14-07
  17. Vorick, D., Champine, L., Nebulous Inc. (2014). Sia: Simple Decentralized Storage, from https://sia.tech/sia.pdf, accessed on 2019-17-07