This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0
Volume 19 article 781 pages: 192 - 203
The utilization of local waste by-products as a building material has attracted great attention for an environmental
sustainability and become a fundamental part of sustainable construction. In this experimental research, the local
palm oil industrial waste and agricultural waste are utilized for the green mortar production. To examine the compressive
strength and the durability performance of the green mortar mixtures, Palm oil boiler clinker (POBC) was used as
a substitution material for natural fine aggregate. An ordinary Portland cement was partially replaced by rice husk ash
(RHA) and calcium bentonite (CB) in the proportion of 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of cement. The compressive
strength, water absorption, porosity, durability against sulphuric acid and sodium sulphate attacks, and microstructures
of the POBC mortar mixtures were evaluated at the curing age of 7, 28, and 56 days. The experimental results
revealed that the compressive strength, water absorption, porosity, and durability characteristics of POBC mortar
incorporating RHA and CB were improved by long-term curing. Particularly, the 56-day POBC mortar incorporating
up to 30% of RHA and 10% of CB yielded the superior durability against sulphuric acid and sodium sulphate attacks.
The authors gratefully acknowledge to the Center of Excellence
in Materials Engineering (CEME) and Faculty
of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University for the financial
support and Graduate Engineering scholarship.
Furthermore, the first author sincerely expressed the special
thanks to the PSU graduate school for PSU.GS. financial
support for thesis. Besides, the authors immensely thank
to Mr. Sombat Na Bumroong for his help in collecting the
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