Istrazivanja i projektovanja za privreduJournal of Applied Engineering Science

MOTIVATION FACTORS OF ENGINEERS IN PRIVATE SECTOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY


DOI: 10.5937/jaes0-29201 
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0
Creative Commons License

Volume 19 article 854 pages: 794-805

P.T.Ranil S. Sugathadasa
University of Moratuwa, Department of Transport and Logistics Management, Katubedda, Sri Lanka

Mavin Lakshitha*
University of Moratuwa, Department of Transport and Logistics Management, Katubedda, Sri Lanka

Amila Thibbotuwawa
University of Moratuwa, Department of Transport and Logistics Management, Katubedda, Sri Lanka

K.A.C.P. Bandara
Access Projects (Pvt) Ltd, Colombo 2, Sri Lanka

Human resource in today’s world is recognized as a strategic asset which drives organizations to superior in the industrial competition. With the effective identification of employee attributes, all the determinants of productivity can be obtained. This research assesses engineers’ motivation factors in the construction industry’s private sector and further examined their response to various attributes, including age and gender. A structured and self-administrated systematic qualitative approach was utilized to collect data from 120 engineers. Twenty-six motivational factors were grouped according to Maslow’s need theory, and the paper presents a comprehensive analysis based on the relative importance and response percentages of the identified factors. The most influential need level among them was statically determined as the esteem needs to be followed by basic needs, belonging needs, safety needs, and self-actualization needs. Out of the twenty-six factors, good work discipline is the most influential motivational factor for female engineers, whereas company name and stability have become the most important factor for male engineers. A variation of those factors' relative importance is also determined for various age groups. These results would help senior management to formulate effective policies to improve employee retention in the construction industry.

View article

The authors gratefully acknowledge the numerous engineers, architects, owners, and other organisations' technical staff for their substantial cooperation and contributions.


1. Kazaz, A., Manisali, E., & Ulubeyli, S. (2008). Effect of basic motivational factors on construction workforce productivity in Turkey. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, vol. 14, no. 2, 95–106, DOI: 10.3846/1392-3730.2008.14.4.

2. Wibowo, M. A. (2009). The Contribution of the Construction Industry to the Economy of Indonesia: A Systemic Approach.

3. Venkatesan, R., Varghese, K., & Ananthanarayanan, K. (2009a). Motivation and demotivation “cause factors” for engineers in construction organisations. Association of Researchers in Construction Management, ARCOM 2009 - Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference, 145–153.

4. Lam, S., & Tang, C. (2003). Motivation of survey employees in construction projects. Journal of Geospatial Engineering, vol. 5, no. 1, 61–66.

5. Rainey, H. G., & Bozeman, B. (2000). Comparing Public and Private Organizations: Empirical Research and the Power of the A Priori. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, vol. 10, no. 2, 447–469, DOI:10.1093/oxford journals.jpart.a024276.

6. Boyne, G. A. (2002). Public and private management: What’s the difference? Journal of Management Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, 97–122, DOI: 10.1111/1467-6486.00284.

7. Ibrahim, A. R. Bin, Roy, M. H., Ahmed, Z. U., & Imtiaz, G. (2010). Analyzing the dynamics of the global construction industry: Past, present and future. Benchmarking, vol. 17, no. 2, 232–252, DOI: 10.1108/14635771011036320.

8. Kärnä, S., & Junnonen, J.-M. (2005). (PDF) Project feedback as a tool for learning, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/252067846_Project_feedback_as_a_tool_for_learning.

9. Anthony, J. (2019). 55 Construction Industry Statistics You Must See: 2020 Market Share & Data Analysis. Finance Online: Reviews for Business, from https://financesonline.com/construction-industry-statistics/.

10. Sugathadasa, P. T. R. S. (2018). Identification and modelling of construction supply chain risk triggers (Doctoral dissertation).

11. Irawan, D., Mochtar, I. B., & Utomo, C. [2019]. The actualization of leadership models adopted by field implementers that influencing the contractor employees' motivation and performance. Journal of Applied Engineering Science, 17(4), 555-566.

12. Maslow, A. H. (1954). The Instinctoid Nature of Basic Needs. Journal of Personality, vol. 22, no. 3, 326–347, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1954.tb01136.x.

13. Kaming, P. F., Olomolaiye, P. O., Holt, G. D., & Harris, F. C. (1998). What Motivates Construction Craftsmen in Developing Countries? A Case Study of Indonesia. Building and Environment, vol. 33, no. 2-3, 131–141, DOI:10.1016/S0360-1323(97)00041-3.

14. Proverbs, D. G., Holt, G. D., & Olomolaiye, P. O. (1998). A comparative evaluation of reinforcement fixing productivity rates amongst French, German and UK construction contractors. In Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 5, no. 4, 350–358, DOI: 10.1108/eb021088.

15. Herzberg, F. (1968). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review, 46–57.

16. Tan, S. K., Fauziah, W., Yusoff, W., Kian, T. S., Talha, M., & Idris, M. (2016). Herzberg ’ s Two-Factor Theory on Work Motivation : Does it Works for Todays Environment? GJCMP, 2(September 2013), 0–5, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262639924.

17. Borcherding, J., & Oglesby, C. (1974). Construction Productivity and Job Satisfaction. Journal of the Construction Division, vol. 100, no. 3, 413–431.

18. Vroom, V. (1964). Work and Motivation. In Wiley and Sons.

19. Maloney, W. F., & McFillen, J. M. (1986). Motivation in unionized construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 112, no. 1, 122–136, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1986)112:1(122).

20. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity In Social Exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 2, no. C, 267–299, DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60108-2.

21. Ng, S. T., Skitmore, R. M., Lam, K. C., & Poon, A. W. C. (2004). Demotivating factors influencing the productivity of civil engineering projects. International Journal of Project Management, vol. 22, no. 2, 139–146, DOI: 10.1016/S0263-7863(03)00061-9.

22. Ghoddousi, P., Bahrami, N., Chileshe, N., & Hosseini, M. R. (2014). Mapping Site-based Construction Workers’ Motivation: Expectancy Theory Approach.

23. Leong, T. K., Zakuan, N., Mat Saman, M. Z., Ariff, M. S. M., & Tan, C. S. (2014). Using project performance to measure effectiveness of quality management system maintenance and practices in construction industry. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/591361.

24. Naff, K. C., & Crum, J. (1999). Working for America: Does public service motivation make a difference? Review of Public Personnel Administration, vol. 19, no. 4, 5–16, DOI: 10.1177/0734371X9901900402.

25. Jurkiewicz, C. L., Massey, T. K., & Brown, R. G. (1998). Motivation in Public and Private Organizations: A Comparative Study. Public Productivity & Management Review, vol. 21, no. 3, 230, DOI: 10.2307/3380856.

26. Buelens, M., & Van Den Broeck, H. (2007). An analysis of differences in work motivation between public and private sector organizations. Public Administration Review, vol. 67, no. 1, 65–74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00697.x.

27. Collis, J., & Hussey, R. (1997). A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students. Enlarge Business Research (4th Edition), from https://www.macmillanihe.com/page/detail/Business-Research/?K=9780230301832.

28. Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (1999). Designing qualitative research (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc, from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1999-02689-000.

29. Heale, R., & Forbes, D. (2013). Understanding triangulation in research. In Evidence-Based Nursing, vol. 16, no. 4, 98, DOI: 10.1136/eb-2013-101494.

30. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students. www.pearsoned.co.uk.

31. Powell, E. T. (1998). Adapted from Sampling in Extension.

32. Slowey, K. (2019). By the numbers: Women in construction. Construction Dive, from https://www.constructiondive.com/news/by-the-numbers-women-in-construction/549359/.

33. Trochim, W. M. (2013). Research Methods Knowledge Base, from http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/index.htm.

34. Cleveland, J. N., & Shore, L. M. F. (1992). Self- and Supervisory Perspectives on Age and Work Attitudes and Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 77, no. 4, 469–484, DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.77.4.469.

35. Kooij, D. T. A. M., De Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., Kanfer, R., & Dikkers, J. S. E. (2011). Age and work-related motives: Results of a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 32, no. 2, 197–225, DOI: 10.1002/job.665.

36. Cardoso, P., Dominguez, C., & Paiva, A. (2015). Hints to Improve Motivation in Construction Companies. Procedia Computer Science, vol. 64, no. 1, 1200–1207, DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.08.513.

37. Eccles, R. G., Newquist, S. C., & Schatz, R. (2007). Reputation and its risks. Harvard Business Review, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6460600_Reputation_and_its_risks.

38. Ogunlana, S. O., & Chang, W. P. (1998). Worker motivation on selected construction sites in Bangkok, Thailand. Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 5, no. 1, 68–81, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-232x.1998.00008.x.

39. Ruthankoon, R., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2003). Testing Herzberg’s two-factor theory in the Thai construction industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 10, no. 5, 333–341, DOI: 10.1108/09699980310502946.

40. Lord, R. L. (2004). Empirical evaluation of classical behavioral theories with respect to the motivation of older knowledge workers.

41. Kemoh, L. M. (2016). The Impact of Motivation on Employees’ Performance and Satisfaction.

42. Kumar, R. U., & Karthikeyan, P. (2016). Career Advancement of Civil Graduates in Construction Projects: Learning Beyond Institutions. Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, vol. 6, no. 7, 1017, DOI: 10.5958/2249-7315.2016.00485.8.

43. Anthony, P. J. (2015). Motivation and Career-Development Training Programs: Use of Regulatory Focus to Determine Program Effectiveness. In Higher Learning Research Communications, vol. 5, no. 2.

44. Ramsay, H., Scholarios, D., & Harley, B. (2000). Employees and high-performance work systems: Testing inside the black box. British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 38, no. 4, 501–531, DOI: 10.1111/1467-8543.00178.

45. DeNisi, A. S., & Kluger, A. N. (2000). Feedback effectiveness: Can 360-degree appraisals be improved? Academy of Management Executive, vol. 14, no. 1, 129–138, DOI: 10.5465/ame.2000.2909845.

46. Gibbons, R., & Waldman, M. (1999). A Theory of Wage and Promotion Dynamics inside Firms. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 114, no. 4, 1321-1358.