This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 terms and conditions.
Volume 17 article 578 pages: 65 - 73
This paper investigated the fuel efficiency and ecological aspects of CNG (compressed natural gas) buses in urban public transport in Belgrade. For this study, CNG bus equipped with lean burn combustion and OCs (oxidation catalysts), and diesel bus with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) - CRT (continuously regenerating technology) were tested on four urban public transport lines (55, 58, 74 and 94). Based on the recorded data regarding bus speed, acceleration, deceleration and mileage, for typical stop distance, driving cycle and its parameters is defi ned for urban public transport lines in Belgrade. Results of this study showed that under identical conditions on the same lines, average consumption of diesel bus was 12% higher than for tested CNG bus, but average energy consumption was 15.7% lower. Applying ''Student's t - test'' it has been determined that emission of NOX from tested CNG bus is lower than for diesel bus for 40%, CO2 for 21.6%, while emission of HC is higher more than ten times.
Support for this research was provided by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia under Grant No. TR36027.
1. Arat, H. T., Baltacioglu M. K., Ozcanli, M., Aydin K. (2016). Effect of using Hydroxy - CNG fuel mixtures in a non-modifi ed diesel engine by substitution of diesel fuel. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 19, 8354-8363, DOI: 10.1016/j. ijhydene.2015.11.183
2. Cannon, J. S., Sun, C. (2000). Bus Futures: New Technologies for Cleaner Cities. Inform, Inc.: New York, #0-918780-748. New York, USA.
3. Northwest Gas Association (2013). Natural Gas Vehicles. Seizing the opportunity: a regional roadmap for deployment. http://www.nwga.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/04/ White Paper FINAL.pdf.
4. Khan, M.I., Yasmin, T., Shakoor, A. (2015). Technical overview of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a transportation fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 51, 785–797, DOI: 10.1016/j. rser.2015.06.053
5. Dursbec, F., Erlandsson, L., Weaver, C. (2001). Status of Implementation of CNG as a Fuel for Urban Buses in Delhi: Findings—Conclusions—Recommendations, Report done for Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, India.
6. Goyal, S. P. (2003). Present scenario of air quality in Delhi: A case study of CNG implementation. Atmospheric Environment, vol. 37, no. 38, 5423–5431, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.005.
7. Ravindra, K., Wauters, E., Tyagi, S. K., Mor, S., Van Grieken, R. (2006). Assessment of Air Quality After the Implementation of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as Fuel in Public Transport in Delhi, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 115, no. 1-3, 405–417, DOI: 10.1007/s10661-006-7051-5.
8. Ally, J., Pryor, T. (2009). Accelerating hydrogen implementation by mass production of a hydrogen bus chassis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, no. 3, 616–624, DOI: 10.1016/j. rser.2007.12.001.
9. Chen, F.Z., Fernandes, T.R.C., Roche, M.Y., Carvalho, M.D.G. (2007). Investigation of challenges to the utilization of fuel cell buses in the EU vs. transition economies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 11, no. 2, 357–364, DOI: 10.1016/j. rser.2005.01.007.
10. Collantes, G. (2008). The dimensions of the policy debate over transportation energy: The case of hydrogen in the United States. Energy Policy, vol. 36, no. 3, 1059–1073, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2007.11.020.
11. Collantes, G., Sperling, D. (2008). The origin of California’s zero emission vehicle mandate. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 42, no. 10, 1302–1313, DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2008.05.007.
12. Frenette, G., Forthoffer, D. (2009). Economic & commercial viability of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from an automotive manufacturer perspective. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, no. 9, 3578–3588, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.02.072.
13. Hekkert, M. P., Hendriks, F. H., Faaij, A. P., Neelis, M. L. (2005). Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development. Energy Policy, vol. 33, no. 5, 579–594, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol. 2003.08.018.
14. Karamangil, M.I. (2007). Development of the auto gas and LPG - powered vehicle sector in Turkey: a statistical case study of the sector for Bursa. Energy Policy, vol. 35, no. 1, 640–649, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol. 2006.01.004.
15. Ukpebor, E. E., Ukpebor, J. E., Eromomene, F., Odiase, J. I., Okoro, D. (2010). Spatial and Diurnal Variations of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Pollution from Motor Vehicles in an Urban Centre. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 19, no. 4, 817-823.