This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 terms and conditions.
Volume 17 article 619 pages: 386 - 394
This paper proposes a method and instruments for assessing the build quality and the technical condition of an electric gear actuator for an exoskeleton based on determining its starting torque as one of the main indicators of the level of degradation of its components. Existing methods are mainly based on identifying starting torque with the help of additional devices that require involvement of an operator in the measurement process, which increases its time and labor costs and makes it difficult to be automated. As opposed to the existing methods and instruments, the method and hardware-software complex developed in this study allow automating the measurement process, does not require expensive equipment, and has potential for conducting technical state control without dismounting an actuator from an exoskeleton. In the experimental part of this paper, the proposed method and tools were evaluated on the basis of electric actuators with reduction gears for an electromechanical orthosis of a lower limb exoskeleton. According to the experimental results, the discrepancy between the values of starting torque obtained separately by an existing method and by the proposed one is within 1.8%, which confirms the efficacy and applicability of the developed method for monitoring the technical condition of electric actuators for exoskeletons both at the stage of their production and during their operation.
The reported study was funded by Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation according to the research project No. 03.G25.31.0261.
1. Chen, B., Zhong, C.-H., Zhao, X., Ma, H., Guan, X. & et al., (2017). A wearable exoskeleton suit for motion assistance to paralysed patients. Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, 11, 7-18. doi:10.1016/j.jot.2017.02.007
2. Chen, B., Ma, H., Qin, L.-Y., Gao, F., Chan, K.-M. & et al., (2016). Recent developments and challenges of lower extremity exoskeletons. Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, 5, 26-37. doi:10.1016/j.jot.2015.09.007
3. Singla, A., Rupal, B.S., & Virk, G.S. (2016). Optimization of stepped-cone CVT for lower-limb exoskeletons. Perspectives in Science, 8, 592-595. doi:10.1016/j.pisc.2016.06.030
4. Huysamen, K., Looze, M., Bosch, T., Ortiz, J., Toxiri, S., & O’Sullivan, L.W.O. (2018). Assessment of an active industrial exoskeleton to aid dynamic lifting and lowering manual handling tasks. Applied Ergonomics, 68, 125-131. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2017.11.004
5. Kawale, S.S., & Sreekumar, M. (2018). Design of a Wearable Lower Body Exoskeleton Mechanism for Shipbuilding Industry. Procedia Computer Science, 133, 1021-1028. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2018.07.073
6. Pons, J.L. (2008). Wearable robots: Biomechatronic exoskeletons. Wiley Online Library. doi:10.1002/9780470987667
7. Moreno, J.C., Figueiredo, J., & Pons, J.L. (2018). Exoskeletons for lower-limb rehabilitation. Colombo R. & Sanguineti V. (Eds.), Rehabilitation Robotics: Technology and Application. (str. 89-99). Academic Press, Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-811995-2.00008-4
8. Gasperini, G., Cannaviello, G., & Guanziroli, E. (2018). Exoskeleton and end-effector robots for upper and lower limbs rehabilitation: narrative review. PM&R, 10(9), 174-174. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2018.06.005
9. Hassani, W., Mohammed, S., Rifaï, H., & Amirat, Y. (2014). Powered orthosis for lower limb movements assistance and rehabilitation. Control Engineering Practice, 26, 245-253. doi:10.1016/j.conengprac.2014.02.002
10. Cao, J., Xie, S.Q., Rifaï, H., Das, R., & Zhu, G.L. (2014). Control strategies for effective robot assisted gait rehabilitation: the state of art and future prospects. Medical Engineering & Physics, 36(12), 1555-1566. doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.08.005
11. Majeed, A.P.P.A., Taha, Z., Abidin, A.F.Z., Zakaria, M.A., Khairuddina, I.M., Razman, M.A.M., & Mohamed, Z. (2017). The control of a lower limb exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation: a hybrid active force control approach. Procedia Computer Science, 105,183-190. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2017.01.204
12. Tsukahara, A., Kawanishi, R., Hasegawa, Y., & Sankai, Y. (2010). Sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transfer support for complete paraplegic patients with robot suit HAL. Advanced Robotics, 24, 1615-1638. doi:10.1163/016918610X512622
13. Anam, K., & Al-Jumaily, A.A. (2012). Active exoskeleton control systems: state of the art. Procedia Engineering, 41, 988-994. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.07.273
14. Hyun, D.J., Park, H., Ha, T., Park, S., & Jung, K. (2017). Biomechanical design of an agile, electricity-powered lower-limb exoskeleton for weight-bearing assistance. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 95, 181-195. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2017.06.010
15. Aliman, N., Ramli, R., & Haris, S.M. (2017). Design and development of lower limb exoskeletons: A survey. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 95, 102-116. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2017.05.013
16. O'Sullivan, L., Nugent, R., & der Vorm, J. (2015). Standards for the safety of exoskeletons used by industrial workers performing manual handling activities: a contribution from the robo-mate project to their future development. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 1418-1425. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.306
17. Manna, S.K., & Dubey, V.N. (2018). Comparative study of actuation systems for portable upper limb exoskeletons. Medical Engineering & Physics, 60, 1-13. doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2018.07.017
18. Veale, A.J., & Xie, S.Q. (2016). Towards compliant and wearable robotic orthoses: A review of current and emerging actuator technologies. Medical Engineering & Physics, 38(4), 317-325. doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2016.01.010
19. Long, Y., Du, Z., Chen, C., Wang, W., He, L., & et al., (2017). Development and analysis of an electrically actuated lower extremity assistive exoskeleton. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 14(2), 272-283. doi:10.1016/S1672-6529(16)60397-9
20. Egorov, A., Kozlov, K., & Belogusev, V. (2015). The method and instruments for induction motor mechanical parameters identification. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10(17), 37685-37691.
21. Kotelnets, N., Akimova, N., & Antonov, M. (2003). Tests, operation and maintenance of electric motors. Moscow: Akademiya.
22. Cipin, R., Mach, M., Toman, M., & Knobloch, J. (2017). Measurement and evaluation of DC motor starting torque. U: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2017 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe). doi:10.1109/EEEIC.2017.7977475
23. Lee, H.J., Im, S.H., Um, D.Y., & Park, G.S. (2018). A design of rotor bar for improving starting torque by analyzing rotor resistance and reactance in squirrel cage induction motor. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 54(3), 1-4. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2017.2764525
24. Sannikov, K. (1948). Calculation of forces and moments in calculating mechanisms. Moscow: GIOP.
25. Yangulov, V. (2008). Accelerated tests of precision reducers for determining their service life. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 10(2), 28-31.
26. Kondratov, R. (2017). Some updates on calculation of the static torque of a reducer at negative environment temperatures. Intelligent systems in production, 15(2), 31-38.